The purpose of sigmoid resection surgery is to treat various diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease, diverticular disease, rectal or colon cancer, large growths on the colon lining or continuous bleeding, according to the University of Chicago Medicine. The type of disease determines which part the colon a surgeon removes. Sigmoid describes the S-shaped section of the colon connecting the descending large intestine to the rectum, says Everyday Health. The sigmoid colon is approximately 18 inches long.
The sigmoid colon is the narrowest section of the large intestine, and more than 90 percent of diverticula form there, explains Everyday Health. Diverticula form in the colon when the colon's soft tissue lining bulges through the outer layer of muscle to the outside of the intestine. When patients have diverticular disease or inflammatory bowel diseases, surgeons perform sigmoid resections to remove significantly infected or inflamed portions of the intestine.
During a sigmoid resection, a surgeon excises the diseased section of the colon, and then sews together both sides of the remaining healthy colon, according to Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America. When a benign growth is causing a blockage, is bleeding or shows other symptoms, a doctor may recommend surgery to relieve the symptoms or to prevent the growth from becoming cancerous, explains the University of Chicago Medicine.