A doctor may perform a cystoscopy to diagnose problems affecting a woman's bladder or urethra, such as frequent urinary tract infections, according to Mayo Clinic. The procedure is useful for examining the cause of symptoms such as painful urination, incontinence, overactive bladder and bloody urine.
A cystoscopy is also used for diagnosing or treating diseases, such as inflammation, cancer and bladder stones, Mayo Clinic states. The cystoscope is a thin, hollow tube with a lens attached at one end, allowing physicians to gain a clearer image of a woman's urethra and the lining of her bladder. When necessary, a doctor may use other tools with a cystoscope to perform medical procedures, such as removal of bladder tumors.