Pulmonary valve stenosis is a deformity on or near the pulmonary valve that slows the blood flow, states Mayo Clinic. Pulmonary valve stenosis can be mild with no symptoms or severe. This condition may develop as a complication of another sickness, but it is typically developed at birth.
Symptoms of pulmonary valve stenosis include chest pain, fatigue, fainting, a heart murmur or shortness of breath, according to Mayo Clinic. These symptoms typically occur for the first time while an individual is exercising. A doctor should be consulted if chest pain or shortness of breath appears. Risk factors of pulmonary valve stenosis include rheumatic fever, carcinoid syndrome or Noonan’s syndrome. Severe pulmonary valve stenosis may be associated with complications such as heart failure, infection, irregular heartbeat and heart-pumping issues. Pulmonary valve stenosis is often detected in childhood with tests such as an echocardiography, an MRI, a CT scan, an electrocardiogram and cardiac catheterization.
Mild pulmonary valve stenosis typically does not require treatment, but more serious cases may require balloon valvuloplasty or open-heart surgery, explains Mayo Clinic. Balloon valvuloplasty involves threading a small tube from a vein in the leg to the heart for a cardiac cauterization before placing a balloon in a narrowed pulmonary valve opening. The balloon is then inflated to widen the valve to increase blood flow before removing the balloon. Open-heart surgery is used to repair the pulmonary artery or valve or for valve replacement. Other heart defects are often repaired during open heart surgery.