Proliferative endometrium refers to the process of the building up of the lining of the uterus just prior to ovulation. Ovulation is the period in the menstrual cycle of a female mammal when an egg is released from the ovaries for possible fertilization. Profilerative endometrium is a necessary part of the cycle, as it ensures that the uterine lining is prepared for the implantation of the fertilized egg.
The proliferative phase of your cycle lasts about nine days. The uterine lining is made up of endometrial cells. During the proliferative phase, the cells rapidly multiply in order to thicken the uterine lining to ensure the proper implantation of a fertilized egg. The uterine lining thickens two to three times during these nine days. If a fertilized egg is not successfully implanted in the uterus, the menstruation cycle occurs.
The process of proliferative endometrium is controlled by the hormone estrogen, which is secreted by the ovarian follicles. When endometrial cells form and flourish outside of the uterine cavity, this is called endometriosis. This very common, yet serious, medical condition typically affects women during their reproductive years and can lead to infertility if not treated and monitored. Symptoms of endometriosis include pain in the abdomen, irregular bleeding and heavy bleeding between cycles.