The surgical procedure in which a surgeon removes one or both ovaries from a woman is called an oophorectomy, according to Mayo Clinic. Removal of both ovaries is a bilateral oophorectomy, while removal of a single ovary is a unilateral oophorectomy.
After the patient receives general anesthesia, the surgeon may perform an oophorectomy by making one long abdominal incision to access and remove the ovaries, or he may use laparoscopic surgery, which involves making three or four small incisions in the abdomen, into which he inserts tubes with cameras and tools to assist him in the procedure, explains Mayo Clinic. In some cases, a surgeon uses robotic assistance. The patient's particular situation determines the type of surgery the doctor performs. Less pain, faster recovery and shorter hospital stays are typical when the patient undergoes laparoscopic or robotic procedures.