Research indicates that adenomyosis creates infertility by causing the cells in the uterine wall to swell and become inflamed, explains Dr. William H. Parker of the University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine. Adenomyosis also affects uterine cells so they do not respond normally to a menstrual cycle, prevent a fertilized embryo from implanting into the uterine lining and prevent the movement of a fertilized egg. Many women with adenomyosis also have endometriosis, which also affects fertility, notes WebMD.
Studies suggest that surgical removal of adenomyosis or treatment with prescription drugs increases the chance of conception, according to Dr. Parker. Doctors can prescribe Lupron or Synarel to reduce the swelling and cramping caused by adenomyosis to help a woman become pregnant, but symptoms reoccur once the patient stops taking medication.
Surgery is the only permanent treatment for adenomyosis, but doctors only operate when the adenomyosis affects isolated areas of the uterine wall, states Dr. Parker. This allows the surgeon to remove the affected areas and rebuild the uterus without them. Patients who do not qualify for this surgery may need a hysterectomy to relieve their symptoms.
Treatment with a progesterone intrauterine device seems to relieve cramping associated with adenomyosis, but it is not a helpful treatment for women trying to conceive, notes Dr. Parker. Some doctors use uterine artery embolization to treat adenomyosis, but symptoms usually reappear after one to two years.