Possible side effects of a lung biopsy include irregular heart rhythms, infections, a collapsed lung, difficulty breathing and hemorrhage, according to WebMD. Rarely, a lung biopsy may lead to death in patients with severe lung disease.
To prevent the lung from collapsing, the doctor may insert a tube in the chest to help inflate the lung during healing, explains WebMD. Antibiotics may help in counteracting infections, such as pneumonia. Breathing difficulties that occur immediately after the biopsy result from spasms of the bronchial tubes. A lung biopsy patient who has fever; experiences lightheadedness, difficulty breathing or extreme chest pain; or coughs up blood excessively should seek immediate medical attention.