Possible side effects following bladder surgery include frequent urination, incontinence, pain during urination, urine blockage and pouch stones, according to the American Cancer Society. Side effects due to cystectomy or a removal of the bladder because of cancer can be especially serious with infection and blood clots as two risks. Men and women can also experience sexual side effects, such as seminal fluid without semen and erectile dysfunction in men, and painful intercourse without an orgasm for women.
Bladder suspension surgeries for urinary leakage or incontinence also include a range of side effects from the development of abscesses at the surgical site, bleeding and blood clots, explains WebMD. The most-common side effect is trouble urinating, although sometimes an overactive bladder also results. If sling surgery is used, a patient can experience painful intercourse, infection and injury to the bladder.
A doctor can treat an overactive bladder or urinary incontinence through surgery involving conventional or tension-free slings or stimulation therapy, explains Mayo Clinic. Side effects vary depending on the surgical method. For instance a synthetic mesh tension-free sling can eventually erode or cause infection, while a conventional sling requires a longer healing period. Instead of bladder surgery, incontinence can be treated by stimulating the sacral or tibial nerves that control the muscles in the bladder.