The most common reasons for an enlarged uterus include adenomyosis, uterine fibroids and pregnancy, according to WebMD. The causes of adenomyosis and uterine fibroids are unknown. Uterine cancers, such as cervical cancer, can also cause the condition.
Adenomyosis is a condition in which the endometrial tissue, the inner lining of the uterus, grows into the muscular outer wall of the uterus, states WebMD. The condition is common among women who are more than 30 years old and those who have undergone uterine surgery. Symptoms include painful periods, painful intercourse, long periods and heavy periods. Pain-reducing medications, an intrauterine device and birth control pills may help relieve pain and counter heavy bleeding. Hysterectomy may be necessary for persistent or severe symptoms.
Uterine fibroids are benign tumors that occur on the wall of the uterus, notes WebMD. They are common in women who are at least 30 years old, overweight and African-American. Symptoms include frequent urination; irregular bleeding; heavy, painful periods; constipation; and pressure in the lower abdomen. Hysterectomy, uterine artery embolization, endometrial ablation and other surgical procedures may help treat severe symptoms.
Physical examination and imaging tests may help discover symptoms and diagnose an enlarged uterus, explains WebMD. Women who experience pain during intercourse, pressure in the lower abdomen, painful periods and other uncommon signs and symptoms should contact their doctors.