Causes of shin cramps include dehydration, medications, general muscle cramps and deep vein thrombosis, according to HealthTap doctors. Muscle cramps have many causes, including muscle fatigue, heat, shin splits and a sprained ankle, notes WebMD.
Dehydration occurs when the body is lacking fluid and causes symptoms such as thirst, dark urine and headache, explains MedlinePlus. The body can lose fluid through sweating, fever, diarrhea, vomiting and excess urination, which can occur as a result of uncontrolled diabetes or diuretics. Dehydration can lead to serious complications, including shock, low blood pressure and loss of consciousness.
Deep vein thrombosis is a blood clot that completely or partially reduces blood flow through a vein, according to Cleveland Clinic. The condition is dangerous if the blood clot dislodges and gets stuck in the blood vessels of the lungs. A person is at risk of deep vein thrombosis if she is undergoing chemotherapy for cancer, overweight, taking birth control pills or sitting for a long period of time. Patients with the condition experience leg swelling, pain and redness of the skin.
Shin splits are a form of leg pain that occur when connective tissues and muscles along the shin bone become inflamed, notes WebMD. Causes of shin splits include running or jumping on hard surfaces, having flat feet, and rotating the foot and leg too much. Wearing supportive shoes and running on soft surfaces instead of hard ones prevent the condition.