Ovarian tumors, functional ovarian cysts and endometriosis are three possible causes of ovarian pain, states WebMD. Ovarian tumors can be benign or malignant and lead to symptoms such as appetite loss, indigestion, abdominal bloating and constipation.
People are diagnosed with ovarian tumors with the help of computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as blood tests that check for risk factors, explains WebMD. Doctors treat the condition with surgery, chemotherapy and radiation depending on the type of tumor and how far it has advanced.
Functional ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs that form inside or on the ovaries during the menstrual cycle, notes MedlinePlus. Functional cysts occur if the follicle that carries a developing egg fails to release the egg, which often happens in women who take fertility drugs. Patients experience pain with functional ovarian cysts if the cysts bleed, enlarge or break open. Other symptoms of the condition include pain during bowel movements, pain with intercourse and abdominal bloating. Doctors often do not treat functional ovarian cysts and instead prescribe oral contraceptives to reduce the risk of new cysts.
Endometriosis occurs when the endometrium lining forms in places other than the inner lining of the uterus, such as on the fallopian tubes, the intestines or the vagina, according to Cleveland Clinic. Doctors do not know the cause of endometriosis but hypothesize it may be due to pieces of the endometrium traveling back to the fallopian tubes. Women with endometriosis experience painful menstruation, infertility and painful sex. The condition is treated with medications, birth control pills and devices, and surgery.