Possible causes of hand cramps include nerve damage, dehydration, overuse from physical activity, chronic kidney disease and vitamin D deficiency, according to MedlinePlus. Brain disorders can also cause cramping in hands and feet, including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, dystonia and Huntington's disease.
Peripheral neuropathy, or nerve damage, can cause cramping, weakness, numbness, twitching and tingling, states MedlinePlus. The condition can impact one nerve or multiple nerves throughout the body and causes muscle loss. Neuropathy is often associated with diabetes, liver infections, metabolic disease, underactive thyroid and autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Inflammation in the joints from rheumatoid arthritis is a common cause for muscle cramping and spasms, according to Everyday Health. Arthritic joints create friction due to a loss of cartilage, which makes the adjacent muscles work harder. Similarly, repetitive actions such as typing all day can cause hands to cramp in people who don't suffer from arthritis.
Cramping is often described by patients experiencing stiffness and aching, which can be brought on with ruptured tendons and muscle atrophy, explains Everyday Health. Reducing inflammation is the best way to treat structural damage to the joints, muscles and tendons and relieve arthritic symptoms. A doctor may prescribe medications, but home treatment can be effective, including hot compresses and strength exercises to improve the hand's range of motion.