A doctor who delivers babies is called an obstetrician, according to the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Obstetrics is the medical specialty of caring for pregnant women. Before the 17th century, female midwives were responsible for delivering obstetrical care. By the 19th century, the field was well-established as a medical discipline.
The Encyclopaedia Britannica states that the obstetrician's responsibilities include not only delivering babies but also diagnosing pregnancy and ensuring proper care of women while they are pregnant. Postnatal care is another important element of the discipline. Obstetricians frequently conduct cesarian sections. Another surgical procedure, episiotomy, involves enlarging the vaginal opening to facilitate a birth.