Chemotherapy can cause a wide range of side affects that are long-term or permanent such as early menopause, osteoporosis, cataracts, nerve damage and reduced lung capacity, states Mayo Clinic. Other possible long-term side effects can include infertility, increased risk for other cancers and liver problems.
Not everyone who has treatment for cancer experiences the same side effects or long-term side effects, according to Mayo Clinic. Some people who have chemotherapy do not experience any long-term issues, as there are different types of chemotherapy drugs that cause varying types of side effects. People who are treated for childhood cancers may experience different types of issues such as slowed bone growth, obesity, learning and memory issues, and vision or hearing loss.
Not all long-term side effects of cancer treatments are known, according to Mayo Clinic. It is not known why some people experience late side effects, while other people do not. It is also not known if late side effects are preventable or not. Although, a patient's cancer doctor often knows what particular side effects, if any, a patient is at risk for. It is best to speak with a doctor about any concerns or symptoms that may be connected to chemotherapy.