Scientists attribute the cause of multiple sneezes in a row to each person's specific neurological and immunological makeup, according to an article in Science Line. People who tend to have various allergies are the most likely to sneeze several times in a row.
According to Health.com, sneezing fits are a possible clue that a person is allergic to something in his environment or that he is suffering from a viral infection. A doctor may refer someone who experiences frequent sneezing attacks to an allergist to determine exactly what is causing the reaction. Pollen, dust and animal dander are the most common allergens. On the other hand, some people have extremely sensitive nasal and sinus linings, in which case allergies may not be part of the equation.
WebMD indicates that sneezes occur when irritants infiltrate the lining of the nose and sinuses. At that point, the brain emits a signal for the body to flush the irritants. This triggers the body to inhale deeply and the tongue to press against the roof of the mouth so that all air must be expelled in the form of a sneeze through the nose. The website reports that the longest sneezing fit on record lasted 978 days.