The presence of back pain after spinal surgery depends on the reason for the procedure, according to Mayo Clinic. While fusion is effective at eliminating pain caused by fractures or spinal instability, the procedure produces widely varied results when doctors can't determine the source of the back pain.
During a spinal fusion, two or more spinal vertebrae are surgically joined with a bone graft to restrict unwanted movement, MedlinePlus states. Immediately after the surgery, doctors usually administer pain medication through an IV line to ease discomfort in the early stages of rehabilitation. Patients who previously suffered from chronic back pain are likely to continue experiencing symptoms. Since the procedure restricts a section of the spine, the adjacent areas are subjected to greater stress, placing all patients at risk of developing pain in the future.