An ovarian neoplasm is simply a growth on the ovary, according to Military Obstetrics and Gynecology. It can be either benign or malignant, slow-growing or aggressive.
One type of ovarian neoplasm is a simple ovarian cyst, says Military Obstetrics and Gynecology. It is a benign, fluid-filled sac, and is often asymptomatic. However, sometimes a cyst may delay menstruation, rupture or twist and cause pain.
Another type of ovarian neoplasm is a dermoid tumor, according to Military Obstetrics and Gynecology. These tumors are also common and can contain hair, teeth, sebaceous glands and thyroid cells. Most of these tumors are benign. However, they can rupture and contaminate the abdominal cavity, produce toxic levels of thyroid hormone, and twist on their stalks. This last condition is a medical emergency.
Ovarian cancer is also an ovarian neoplasm. This is a rare cancer and is hard to detect in its early stages. Because of this, the cancer is fairly well advanced by the time the woman experiences symptoms. Even then, the symptoms can be non-specific. They include bloating and discomfort in the pelvic area. Other symptoms include weight loss, feeling full after eating a small meal, a frequent urge to urinate and constipation, claims Mayo Clinic.