Otolaryngology is the medical field that specializes in the treatment of diseases or disorders of the ears, nose and throat and structures of the head and neck, states the American Academy of Otolaryngology. Doctors in this specialty are referred to as otolaryngologists or ENT physicians.
Treatment of ear conditions involves medical and surgical management of ear infections, hearing loss, ear noise, balance disorders, particular cranial nerve disorders and congenital disorders of the inner and outer ears. Disorders of the nasal area include smell disorders, allergies, polyps and nasal obstruction, notes the American Academy of Otolaryngology. Diseases associated with the throat, voice box and esophagus involve swallowing and voice disorders. In the head and neck section, otolaryngologists deal with facial deformities, surgeries, rhinoplasty, facial traumas and benign and malignant tumors.
Otolaryngology involves seven areas of expertise, states the American Academy of Otolaryngology. The allergy specialty deals with sensitivities of ENT, while the facial and reconstructive surgery specialty deals with cosmetic, functional or reconstructive surgery. The head and neck specialty deals with tumors in the head, neck and upper esophagus; the laryngology specialty involves throat disorders; and the otology or neurotology specialty involves ear conditions. The rhinology specialty deals with nose conditions, and pediatric otolaryngology deals with ENT conditions in children.