A normal hemoglobin count is defined as 13.5 to 17.5 grams per deciliter of blood for men and 12.0 to 15.5 grams per deciliter of blood for women, states Mayo Clinic. The levels may vary slightly between medical practices. In children, normal ranges differ with age and gender.
A low hemoglobin count is an indication of anemic conditions such as thalassemia, hypothyroidism, iron deficiency, folate deficiency, bleeding and bone marrow cancers, notes Mayo Clinic. A high hemoglobin count can be as a result of dehydration, heavy smoking, burns, extreme physical exercise or living at a high altitude. It can also be an indication of disorders such as lung disease or polycythemia vera.