Cramping following menstruation is a common symptom of endometriosis, a common condition in which uterine tissue develops in other areas of the body, such as the ovaries or fallopian tubes, according to WebMD. When the hormones fluctuate during the menstrual cycle, the uterine growths react, causing cramping and discomfort.
Additional symptoms of endometriosis include back discomfort and stomach pain prior to and during menstruation, according to MedlinePlus. Endometriosis can be treated with relaxation exercises and non-prescription pain medications, such as ibuprofen or naproxen. Severe endometriosis may require prescription pain medications. Complications of the condition include conception difficulties, pelvic cysts and chronic pelvic pain.