New types of medication patients can use to treat Type 2 diabetes are called SGLT2 inhibitors, which cause the body to expel excess glucose through urination, explains WebMD. Afrezza, which is a form of insulin patients can inhale, is another new diabetes medication.
Unlike traditional diabetes medications, SGLT2 inhibitors have nothing to do with insulin, as their job is to keep too much glucose from getting into the body, according to WebMD. A normal process of the kidneys is to store glucose so the body can use it for energy. SGLTs are proteins that cause the body to excrete excess glucose instead of storing it since people with Type 2 diabetes don't need excess glucose in their bodies. Because SGLT2 inhibitors cause sugar to drain from the genital area, women who take this medication have an increased risk of developing a yeast infection, and men who are uncircumcised are at risk of developing foreskin infections. This medication should not be taken by elderly individuals who have kidney disease or anyone who consumes diuretics.
Afrezza is a fast-acting insulin that patients can only take at mealtimes. This drug comes in small cartridges that users must place into a device that releases the medication. The lowest-possible dose of Afrezza is four units, so patients who require less insulin to manage their blood sugar should not take this medication since it can cause the blood sugar to drop too low, notes WebMD.