The causes of neuropathy can be associated with diabetes, cancer, alcohol use, deficiencies and other factors. Neuropathy involves an increased release of neurotransmitters that are responsible for pain signaling, and the inability of nerves to regulate pain. Neuropathy treatment involves using medications and treating underlying health conditions, according to MedicineNet.
Several possible causes of neuropathy can lead to cellular malfunction involving nerves and neurotransmitters. These can include nerve-related diseases, drug and alcohol use, vitamin B deficiency and toxins. The resulting cellular dysfunction can cause an increased sensation of pain to originate from a particular area in the body, states MedicineNet. Additionally, the spinal cord can be adversely affected by a loss of normally functioning cells, which can cause the perception of pain despite external stimuli. In the brain, the ability to prevent pain signaling can be affected by a stroke or other brain trauma. Pain can persist over time due to the occurrence of further cellular damage.
Medications used to treat neuropathic pain can include antidepressants, anti-seizure and heart arrhythmia medications. Topical medications such as lidocaine and capsaicin can benefit some patients, reports MedicineNet. However, to cure neuropathic pain, the underlying cause must be addressed. In some cases, neuropathy is reversible and the nerves heal over time.