There are over 600 neurological diseases, the most common of which are Huntington's disease, muscular dystrophy, stroke and spina bifida. Other neurological diseases include Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's and epilepsy, according to MedlinePlus. Neurological disorders are diseases of the brain and spinal column, and the nerves connecting them, claims the University of California San Francisco.
Huntington's disease and muscular dystrophy are caused by faulty genes, while spina bifida occurs due to issues with the nervous system. Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's occur when the nerve cells are damaged or die, and a stroke occurs due to a disease of the blood vessels that supply the brain, according to MedlinePlus.
Early symptoms of Alzheimer's disease involve difficulty remembering names and recalling events, while later symptoms include impaired judgement, behavior changes, difficulty speaking, and difficulty swallowing and walking, according to the Alzheimer's Association. Symptoms of Parkinson's disease include movement problems and progressive dementia similar to Alzheimer's disease. Huntington's disease is a progressive brain disorder caused by a defective gene. Symptoms include involuntary movements, severe decline in thinking and reasoning skills, and mood changes.
The primary symptoms of muscular dystrophy are progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles. It is caused by the absence of dystrophin, a protein involved in maintaining the muscles. The onset typically occurs between the ages of 3 and 5 and progresses rapidly, according to the American Academy of Neurology. Symptoms of spina bifida include muscle weakness, bowel and bladder problems, seizures, and orthopedic problems, according to Mayo Clinic.