The relationship between these terms is that nephrology is the medical specialty that treats all different types of kidney disease and hypertension. The different types of kidney problems diagnosed and treated in nephrology are kidney stones, diabetes-related kidney conditions, urinary tract infection and chronic kidney diseases, relates the Mayo Clinic. Many nephrology departments also treat hypertension.
Kidney disease can be the result of different causes. Similarly, there can be many types of kidney diseases. When there is damage to the kidneys, they will not function properly, and this can lead to fluid buildup in the body, states WebMD. This is because the kidneys perform many functions in the body, such as removing different waste matter, controlling the water balance in the body and producing different proteins and vitamin D.
Severe kidney damage or diseases can cause these organs to fail, leading to serious complications or even death.
The different types of kidney diseases can include acute kidney failure and chronic kidney disease. To treat a person with a kidney problem, a nephrologist needs to diagnose the patient and find the cause for the condition. For example, chronic kidney disease can be the result of underlying conditions that can include different forms of hepatitis, lupus, a urinary tract infection and the use of either drugs or medications.
There are nephrology departments in major hospitals or medical facilities that deal with these different types of kidney diseases. The Mayo Clinic and the New York-Presbyterian Hospital are two such facilities that have nephrology divisions.