Nephrolithiasis is the medical term for kidney stones, according to Cleveland Clinic. Kidney stones are typically made of either calcium, uric acid, struvite or cystine.
Nephrolithiasis can be asymptomatic or cause flank pain, blood in the urine, kidney obstruction or urinary infections, according to Cleveland Clinic. The most common type of kidney stones are made of calcium, and a high-sodium diet is shown to promote the formation of calcium stones. Treatment of calcium stone nephrolithiasis includes increasing fluid intake, reducing sodium intake and taking a medication called a thiazide diuretic, which increases calcium reabsorption in the kidneys so that there is less calcium available in the urine to form stones.