Negative effects of smoking include harm and damage to bodily organs and the body's systems, explains the National Cancer Institute. Smoking diminishes overall health and can cause cancers of the mouth, throat, kidney, bladder, stomach and lungs. People who smoke are also at risk for cancers of the pancreas, colon, rectum, cervix, larynx and esophagus.
Smoking can cause an aortic aneurysm, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes and heart disease, according to the National Cancer Institute. People who smoke are at risk for osteoporosis, cataracts, asthma symptoms, rheumatoid arthritis and age-related macular degeneration. Smokers also have a higher risk of developing airway infections, tuberculosis and pneumonia. Smoking can lead to impairments in the immune system and inflammation.
Women who smoke may have difficulty getting pregnant, explains the National Cancer Institute. Pregnant women who smoke have a higher risk of a premature birth, miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, low birth weight and a baby born with a cleft palate or cleft lip. Males who smoke have an increased risk of developing erectile dysfunction.
Smoking can impact and reduce fertility because it affects men's sperm, which increases the risk for birth defects, warns the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. People who smoke are also at risk of tooth loss due to deterioration of the teeth and gums.