A person may need to see a neurologist if he experiences symptoms such as a decreased sensation, muscle weakness or coordination difficulties, according to Healthline. An individual with an altered sense of smell, vision or touch may also opt to consult a neurologist, as problems with senses can result from nervous system disorders. Vision loss, lack of bowel control and a tingling sensation are symptoms of multiple sclerosis that require a neurologist's expertise.
Neurologists specialize in identifying and treating conditions related to the nervous system, explains Healthline. They typically treat headaches; spinal cord disorders; neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Lou Gehrig's disease; nervous system infections, such as brain abscesses, meningitis and encephalitis; and seizure disorders.
When diagnosing the condition of a new patient, neurologists generally perform a physical test and a neurological test, which checks muscle coordination, reflexes and strength, states Healthline. To produce an accurate diagnosis, they sometimes perform a lumbar puncture, a procedure that helps neurologists determine if the symptoms of a sickness result from a spinal fluid infection. During the test, a doctor inserts a needle into the spine and obtains a spinal fluid sample.
Neurologists may also perform the tensilon test, which helps identify certain neuromuscular disorders and requires the use of edrophonium chloride, notes Healthline. Other helpful diagnostic procedures include an electroencephalogram, a computed tomography scan and a magnetic resonance imaging test.