A myomectomy is a surgical procedure that removes uterine fibroids, as Mayo Clinic explains. Uterine fibroids are noncancerous growths in the uterus and are common in women during their childbearing years.
Uterine fibroids cause symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pressure and fertility problems. Women report symptom improvement after surgery, and those with fertility problems can conceive within one year of having the surgery. However, surgery may not detect new small fibroids, and additional treatment may be necessary, according to May Clinic.
The goal of the surgery is to remove the uterine fibroids carefully and reconstruct the uterus. Risks associated with the surgery include excessive blood loss, scar tissue, childbirth complications and hysterectomy. Generally, a myomectomy is low risk, and taking certain steps helps prevent complications, as Mayo Clinic explains. Taking iron supplements before surgery reduces the risk of excessive bleeding, and undergoing hormonal therapy before surgery can shrink the fibroids so that a less invasive surgery is necessary.
Three types of myomectomy are available depending on the size of the fibroids, and they include an abdominal myomectomy, a laparoscopic or robotic myomectomy, and a hysteroscopic myomectomy. The robotic myomecomy is the least invasive option and usually results in less pain, less bleeding and a quicker recovery, but the surgery is limited to those with smaller fibroids growing in certain locations. In each type of surgery, surgeons cut the fibroid into smaller pieces before removing it, as explained by Mayo Clinic. Patients can expect a one to six week recovery period that depends on the type of surgery.