Some medications doctors prescribe to lower blood sugar levels include metformin, sulfonylureas and DPP-4 inhibitors, states the Mayo Clinic. Metformin improves the body's sensitivity to insulin, which subsequently decreases blood sugar levels. Doctors usually prescribe it first. Sulfonylureas encourage the body to secrete more insulin, which has the same effect.
DPP-4 inhibitors directly reduce blood sugar levels but usually have limited results, according to the Mayo Clinic. Although similar to metformin, thiazolidinediones have the side effects of increased weight gain and heightened risks of heart attack and fractures. It is possible for some individuals with type 2 diabetes to lower their blood sugar levels through a high-fiber, low-fat diet and exercise, without the need for medication.