Anal fissures are treated medically with nitrate ointment applied to the affected area to raise blood flow to the anal canal and calcium channel blockers to lower blood pressure, according to WebMD. Patients may also opt for Botox injections when topical treatments are ineffective. Botox injections paralyze the sphincter muscle, which helps encourage healing and reduce pain.
In extreme cases, patients may require surgery to repair or heal anal fissures, explains WebMD. Surgery for anal fissures, known as a lateral internal sphincterotomy, is the process of creating a small cut in the muscle of the anal sphincter to reduce pressure and pain. Some patients have an inability to control mild fecal leakage or gas immediately after surgery. The fissures commonly heal within eight weeks.
Fissures caused by diarrhea or constipation can be treated with self-care such as hydrating the body with clear liquids, increasing the amount of fiber in the diet and using over-the-counter laxatives after consulting with a medical professional, according to WebMD. A sitz bath or a soak in warm water two or three times each day helps to improve blood flow, relax the anal sphincter and clean the anus, which promotes healing of the tears. Patients should not strain during bowel movements and consult with a physician about diarrhea or chronic constipation that could be worsening the condition.