Medical screenings for cancer include a mammogram and a Pap smear for women. They also include prostate cancer screening for men and colorectal cancer screening for both sexes, according to Mayo Clinic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MedlinePlus and the American Cancer Society.
During a mammogram, digital pictures of a woman's breasts are taken by an X-ray machine, explains Mayo Clinic. Later, a doctor inspects the pictures for any signs of cancer. A Pap smear is used to check for cervical cancer, or signs of abnormal cells in the cervix, states MedlinePlus. Screening for prostate cancer can involve a digital rectal exam, a prostate specific antigen test, or both, says the CDC. To find early colorectal cancer or suspicious polyps, the doctor uses tests, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, occult fecal blood tests or double-contrast barium enemas, notes the American Cancer Society.