Anemia, lupus, frostbite, scleroderma and Buerger's disease are medical issues that cause cold hands. Diabetic hypoglycemia and Raynaud's disease are also medical causes of cold hands, according to Mayo Clinic. Cold hands commonly indicate a problem with the blood vessels and blood circulation in the hands.
Frostbite, hypothyroidism, peripheral vascular disease, blood clots and stress cause cold hands. Anemia and certain drugs, such as cancer medications, amphetamines and decongestants, are additional medical causes of cold hands, claims Rush University Medical Center. Frostbite requires immediate medical attention due to the tissues in the hands freezing, potentially causing painful and irreversible damage.