Numerous conditions, from cysts and hernias to several types of cancer, can cause a lump or mass in the lower abdomen, according to MedlinePlus. A person who notices an abdominal mass should seek medical attention, and a doctor can determine a diagnosis.
A pulsating and especially painful mass may be the sign of a serious condition, such as a ruptured aortic aneurysm, notes MedlinePlus. If this condition is suspected, a person should immediately seek emergency medical attention. A doctor is likely to check several factors related to an abdominal mass to gather more information, including if the mass location is fixed, moving or coming and going, as well as accompanying symptoms.
Abdominal lumps may vary in size, and they can range in firmness, according to Healthline. Hernias are one of the most common causes of lower abdominal swelling. Hernias occur when parts of internal organs press through the muscles of the abdominal wall and protrude outward, which causes lumps accompanied by pain while coughing or bending over to lift things. There are several different types of hernias that can cause lower abdominal lumps, and hernias are usually treatable with a relatively simple surgery.
Abdominal lumps can also signify colon, stomach, kidney, liver or gallbladder cancer; diverticulitis; bladder distension or enlarged spleen, states MedlinePlus. Crohn's disease, ovarian cysts and uterine fibroids are other possible causes of lower abdominal lumps.