Treatment methods for bladder cancer in both genders include several types of surgery, immunotherapy, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, according to Mayo Clinic. If removal of the entire bladder is necessary in a male patient, as in cases of invasive bladder cancer, the seminal vesicles and prostate may also be removed.
If the bladder cancer has not yet progressed to the walls of the bladder, a surgeon may remove the tumor via transurethral resection, as stated by Mayo Clinic. The procedure involves inserting a cystoscope and wire loop through the urethra and into the bladder to burn away cancer cells. Another procedure involves removal of a small portion of the bladder. If the cancer has progressed to the bladder wall's deeper layers, removal of the entire bladder may be required. This may cause erectile dysfunction in men due to the loss of the prostate and seminal vesicles, but the doctor is often able to save the nerves associated with having an erection. After this procedure, the doctor must create an alternative path for urine to leave the body.
Immunotherapy, also called biological therapy, involves the use of immune-stimulating bacterium or a synthetic immune system protein to push the immune system to fight cancer cells, as confirmed by Mayo Clinic. Patients may undergo chemotherapy before or after surgery to help kill cancer cells, which may be applied intravenously or through the urethra. Doctors occasionally recommend radiation therapy to kill remaining cancer cells after surgery.