A macular hole occurs when nerve cells of the macula separate from each other and pull away from the part of the eye that controls central vision. It is characterized by a degradation in central vision.
The macula is the area in the middle of the retina where the eye focuses light. In this area are networks of closely knitted nerve cells that react to light. Although the causes of most macular holes are unknown, some are caused by eye injury, medical conditions and the aging process.
While the condition usually happens only in one eye, symptoms generally include the inability to see fine details of objects, vision fogginess or dark spots in the center of the vision field.