Serious lung pain can be felt in the back and become worse with deep breathing, notes WebMD. If a lung disease such as pneumonia or bronchitis is present, coughing is a common symptom. Persistent cough can cause muscles in the back to be overused, resulting in muscle soreness or strain.
Any accompanying fever with lung illness can cause muscles and joints all over the body to ache as well. Acute bronchitis can last for several weeks, whereas chronic bronchitis lasts for over three months with reoccurring bouts of coughing, notes Mayo Clinic. Prolonged coughs can lead to back pain, chest discomfort and shortness of breath, explains Mayo Clinic.