According to TeachPE, the three main long-term effects of exercise are a more efficient circulatory system, a healthier respiratory system, and an increase in muscle mass. The combination of these three benefits of exercise can help lower blood pressure, improve breathing, and increase energy, among other positive long-term effects.
TeachPE points out several positive long-term effects of exercise for the circulatory system. Exercise increases the heart's volume, the number of red blood cells and the density of the muscles' capillary beds, all of which improve the body's ability to transport oxygen. In addition, the body removes lactic acid and other waste products more quickly.
Where the respiratory system is concerned, TeachPE points out that exercise increases the strength of the diaphragm and other respiratory muscles, resulting in larger respiratory volumes and more oxygen in the blood stream.
According to TeachPE, long-term effects of exercise on the muscles include increased energy production, increased strength and a better ability to store glycogen for energy. In addition, as energy production becomes more efficient, the metabolism speeds up.
The types of exercises a person chooses depend on several factors, including exercise expectations and personal ability. MedicineNet.com recommends several exercises for various levels of ability, including walking, squats, lunges, push-ups and crunches.