The list of symptoms of chronic kidney disease is at least 14 items long, according to Mayo Clinic. Symptoms include nausea, fatigue, changes in urine output, swelling of the feet and ankles, and persistent itching. Many of these symptoms are not specific to kidney disease, and patients are often asymptomatic until about 90 percent of the kidneys have been destroyed, notes Healthline.
Symptoms of chronic kidney disease can also include anemia and bone pain due to the decreasing ability of the kidneys to produce erythropoietin, a hormone that stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells, explains Healthline.
Chronic kidney disease progresses through five stages determined by the glomerular filtration rate, notes Temple University Hospital. Stage 1 involves kidney damage but a normal glomerular filtration rate of 90 or above. Stage 2 is indicated by a glomerular filtration rate of 60 to 89, and stage 3 is indicated by a rate of 30 to 59. Anemia and bone problems become more likely during stage 3.
At stage 4, the patient has a glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 29 and doctors recommend dialysis or kidney transplant, explains Temple University Hospital. Stage 5 patients have a rate lower than 15 and must get dialysis or a kidney transplant when their organ function becomes inadequate to support life.