Liver problems such as Gilbert's disease, cirrhosis, liver disease and hepatitis can all cause high bilirubin levels, according to Medlineplus. A person with high bilirubin levels may suffer from jaundice, which is a health issue that causes yellow coloring of the eyes, skin or mucous membranes. Jaundice is common in newborns but can also affect adults and children.
An individuals bilirubin levels can be determined from a urine sample or from a blood test called a venipuncture. These tests are generally performed by a doctor if they believe a patient has gallbladder or liver problems or is showing signs of having jaundice, according to Medlineplus.