Renal patients should consume foods low in potassium, protein and sodium, according to the Medical College of Wisconsin. Foods on this list include apples, beans, rice, bread and grapes. Other foods patients can eat range from grains and vegetables to fresh spices and lemons.
High potassium levels can cause the heart to beat irregularly, and kidneys that do not function properly may not create the proper balance of potassium in the body, notes the Medical College of Wisconsin. Patients should eat low-potassium foods, such as noodles, cucumbers, pears, cranberries and carrots. Most foods contain potassium, so portion control is necessary.
Urea may build up in the bloodstream in patients with kidney problems, says the Medical College of Wisconsin. Urea is a waste product that forms after the body breaks down protein, and then it is flushed out through the kidneys. Low-protein foods include fresh beans, such as navy, pinto and kidney beans, vegetables and grains.
Kidneys remove excess sodium, and malfunctioning kidneys may cause water retention, according to the Medical College of Wisconsin. A doctor may ask patients to eat low-sodium foods and use spices like garlic, oregano and fresh lemon. Water retention may cause swelling in the eyes, hands and ankles.