A lipid profile is a series of tests that measure the cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood, according to Providence Health and Services. A high level of cholesterol or triglycerides can create plaque in the arteries, which can increase heart disease risk.
Lipid profile tests also measure for levels of "good" lipoproteins in the blood, according to Cleveland Clinic. High density lipoprotein is also referred to as HDL. High levels of HDL indicate a reduced risk for developing heart disease. Low density lipoprotein is also referred to as LDL, which is considered a "bad" cholesterol that can increase the chance of stroke and heart attack in certain individuals.