Enlarged testicles may be the result of injury or various medical conditions, according to Healthline. Disorders associated with scrotal enlargement include testicular torsion, enlarged veins in the scrotum, hernia, inflammation and congestive heart failure. Swelling of the scrotum may be either painful or painless, depending on the cause.
Scientists have discovered an association between large testicular size and an elevated risk of being hospitalized for cardiovascular disease, reports Live Science. This association may be attributable to high levels of luteinizing hormone, which is produced by the pituitary gland. The hormone stimulates testosterone production, which increases the size of the testicles.