Animals that are considered kosher according to the laws of the Torah include cows, bulls, sheep, lambs and goats. Examples of kosher birds include duck, geese, chicken and turkey. Shellfish is forbidden, but fish with scales and fins, such as salmon, herring and tuna, are allowed.
According to the laws of the Torah, cattle and game that both have cloven hooves and chew their cud are considered kosher and may be eaten as long as they are slaughtered in the traditional manner. A ritual slaughterer, known as a Schochet, performs the ritual in such a way as to render the animal unconscious instantaneously and death is quick and painless.
Dairy products must be derived from kosher animals and may not contain any non-kosher additives. Many breads and preprocessed foods often contain additives such as whey, making them non-kosher. Milk and meat may not be cooked, served or eaten together in a kosher meal. A Jewish household that observes kosher rules is careful to keep separate dishware and utensils for milk and meat. After eating meat, a duration of between one and six hours must pass before dairy can be consumed.
Fruits, vegetables and other plant-based foods are considered kosher, but must be cleaned and examined carefully for insects, which are not. Additionally, fruits from trees that are less than three years of age are forbidden.