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What are some of the known causes of kidney stones?

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Kidney stones form when certain substances that are typically present in urine, such as calcium, phosphorus and oxalate, become highly concentrated. People who do not drink enough water have a high chance of developing kidney stones since their urine is more concentrated, explains the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.

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Certain medical conditions may also increase a person's risk of developing kidney stones, notes WebMD. Crohn's disease and gout are examples of diseases that can affect a person's normal urine balance, causing kidney stones to form. Kidney stones also run in families and can develop in family members over several generations.

Other possible causes of kidney stones include hyperparathyroidism and renal tubular acidosis the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases notes. Hyperparathyroidism is a condition that causes too much calcium to develop in the blood, which raises the calcium levels in urine and makes it too concentrated. Renal tubular acidosis is a condition that prohibits the kidneys from excreting acids into the urine, causing the blood and urine to become very acidic. People taking certain medications or substances, such as protease inhibitors, diuretics, anti-seizure medications or calcium-based antacids, have a higher risk of developing kidney stones.

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