Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, cleft lip, spina bifida and muscular dystrophy are some types of birth defects, according to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
There are two primary types of birth defects, structural and developmental. Structural birth defects are issues with body parts, while functional birth defects cause issues with how a body part functions, according to MedicineNet.
Structural birth defects include heart defects, abnormal limbs and neural-tube defects, says MedicineNet. Functional birth defects often lead to intellectual and developmental disability, as well as speech difficulties, behavior disorders and seizures. Hearing and visual problems are also functional defects, explains the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.