Acute kidney failure symptoms include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, drowsiness and confusion. Nausea, little or no urine output, and swelling in the legs, feet or ankles are also possible, according to Mayo Clinic. Sometimes acute kidney failure has no symptoms and can only be detected by lab tests.
A variety of diseases and other factors contribute to acute kidney failure, Mayo Clinic explains. They cause kidney damage, impaired blood flow and urine blockage.
Kidney damage is created by a variety of health issues, Mayo Clinic states. They include diseases that cause inflammation, blood disorders, cancer, cholesterol deposits and infection. Certain medications can lead to kidney damage, as well as toxins like alcohol, cocaine and heavy metals.
Blood flow to the kidneys can become impaired by heart disease or heart attack, infection or liver failure, Mayo Clinic reports. Other factors include severe dehydration, allergic reactions or burns as well as blood loss. Sometimes over-the-counter pain relievers can cause blood flow issues.
Several diseases and conditions can block the flow of urine through the kidneys, Mayo Clinic says. They include cancers of the bladder, colon, cervix and prostate, as well as nerve damage in the bladder. An enlarged prostate or kidneys stones could play a role. Sometimes blood clots in the urinary tract obstruct urine flow as well.