Key aspects of the anatomy of the heart include blood vessels, valves and chambers, according to InnerBody. Veins, such as the superior and inferior vena cava and the pulmonary vein, bring blood into the heart, while arteries such as the aorta and the pulmonary artery take it away.
The four chambers of the heart are the left and right atria and the left and right ventricles, says InnerBody. The atria are at the top of the heart and the ventricles at the bottom, and the pairs are separated by the septum, a wall of muscle that runs down the center of the heart. Valves control how blood flows in and out of the heart.