There are many causes for testicular swelling, including hydrocele, a hernia, torsion of testes and mumps, according to Healthline. Testicular cancer and congestive heart failure also cause swelling of the testes, while certain sexually transmitted infections can cause swelling through orchitis and epididymitis.
Hydrocele is a fluid-filled sac around the testicles, as described by Healthline. Although most common in babies, hydrocele can also occur in older males. It is generally painless, with the only symptom being swelling. If appearing in infancy, hydrocele typically goes away on its own; for older people, surgery is an option.
A hernia forms when an organ penetrates muscle or connective tissue. Hernias develop from muscle weakness, which often occurs from congenital defects, age, internal damage, pregnancy and chronic coughing, according to Healthline. Frequently, hernias require no treatment, though an operation may be necessary if pain or growth is excessive.
Torsion of the testes is a medical emergency and may necessitate immediate care, as stated by Healthline. Testicular torsion happens when the spermatic cord is curved. It causes severe pain and possibly permanent damage by restricting blood flow to the testes.
Epididymitis involves swelling of the tube at the back of the testicles that stores and carries sperm and is often caused by a bacterial or sexually transmitted infection.