A macular hole is a small break that occurs in the center of the eye's retina. The macula is a light-sensitive part of the retina that provides the sharp central vision that aids in seeing fine detail, reading and driving.
Macular holes are usually due to the loss of a gel-like substance called vitreous; this loss is caused by old age. This substance makes up about 80 percent of the eye and aids it in maintaining its round shape. Vitreous is made up of millions of fibers that are attached to the retina's surface. Macular holes can also be caused by eye disorders such as macular pucker, eye injuries and retinal detachment.