Hernia surgery is done by cutting the inner lining of the abdomen to expose the weakness in the abdominal wall, which is patched with a surgical mesh to reinforce it, according to Cleveland Clinic. This procedure is done either through small holes with special thin instruments or a large incision.
A hernia occurs when the inner layers of the abdominal wall tear or bulge, says Cleveland Clinic. This can occur because there is an inherent weakness in the wall or because of significant strain such as difficulties urinating or defecating, or from heavy lifting or persistent coughs. The pressure inside the abdomen forces the inner lining to push its way outward as a sac that resembles a balloon. Loops of intestine or abdominal tissue can then force their way into the sac, which in turn can cause serious complications or pain.
Hernias usually occur on the groin or on the abdomen, according to Cleveland Clinic. About 80 percent occur in the groin area. They can also occur below the groin, through an old incision or through the belly button. These protrusions are often quite noticeable. They produce symptoms such as pain while lifting, nausea, constipation, a feeling of fullness and a general dull ache.